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Adena/Hopewell activity around the Portsmouth Ohio region.

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  • Adena/Hopewell activity around the Portsmouth Ohio region.

    Lately I have become very interested and intrigued by the Woodland period history of my area. According to records, Portsmouth Ohio, and the surrounding region was full of these woodland hunters. Here is a short and interesting history of the region where the Ohio Hopewell made their home.

    The Hopewell culture was not a specific tribe or group, but rather a large diverse group of related peoples and traditions. Hopewell culture was spread throughout the Midwest during the woodland period roughly 1,500 years ago. Though the Hopewell were spread out, they were all connected by a common network of trade routes. They traded a great variety of material from around the country, to be made into exquisite art and ceremonial objects.

    The epicenter of the Hopewell culture centered itself in the Scioto River valley from 200 BC to AD 500. The Ohio Hopewell were known for constructing huge burial mounds, some of which still stand today. The modern town of Portsmouth Ohio was an important place to them. Many mounds dotted the landscape where the Ohio and Scioto rivers meet. One of the biggest gathering of mounds was located here: The Portsmouth Earthworks.

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    The Portsmouth Earthworks was an important ceremonial site built between 100 BC to AD 500. The earthworks were divided into three sections, stretching over twenty miles long.

    Group A is actually located across the river near South Portsmouth, Greenup county KY. It is known as the Old Fort Earthworks, because of it's fort-like shape.
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    Group B is located where the modern city of Portsmouth now stands. Group B is probably the most interesting of the mounds. Group B consists of two Horseshoe mounds surrounded partway by three semi-circular walls. There are several rings and smaller horseshoe mounds along with three long walled "roads". The main road leads south towards Greenup Ky and Biggs mound. The second leads south in the other direction to the Old Fort Mound and the third leads to Tremper mound about five miles away. Only one Horseshoe mound is left, all the others were bulldozed. The surviving mound is now in a park.

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    "The education of a man is never completed until he dies." Robert E. Lee

  • #2
    Alien's, only explanation. Nah, good Topic!
    http://joshinmo.weebly.com

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    • #3
      The final major mound is Biggs mound, or Group C. This mound was believed to believed to be built by the Adena's. It is a large mound consisting of a series of circles centered around a large conical mound. It is located in Greenup County Kentucky, several miles east of South Shore. Biggs mound is actually connected to group B, via the walled road.

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      "The education of a man is never completed until he dies." Robert E. Lee

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      • #4
        It always fascinated me, and excited my imagination, knowing there are areas within the borders of the United States where monumental constructs were made, and a history lived, for generations, a history that we will ever only be able to reconstruct to a very limited degree, because these cultures left us no written records. The big drawback where prehistory is concerned. So we have the monumental earthworks of the Hopewell, the Mississippian culture in the Southeast, Cahokia, and the pueblos and cliff dwellings of the Ancestral Puebloan culture. All had histories and cultures lasting generations, and saw the world, interpreted the meaning of life, the nature of the universe, etc., in ways we can only glean dimly. And these monumental constructs endure silently.

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        • #5
          Life along the rivers was interesting. They would fish with nets using stone sinkers or with a bone hook. They had canoes to travel from Ohio to Kentucky. The Scioto River bank was a heavily traveled trail from Portsmouth to Sandusky Ohio. They would travel back and forth every year. They hunted woodland deer, and turkey, and down in Kentucky they would hunt elk, and surprisingly bison! Wolves were also found here as evidenced by various effigy pipes. Pipestone was found in the hills east of Portsmouth, leading to some beautiful Pipe carvings. Experts today say that some of the pipes are actually from Illinois pipestone, indicating trade.

          There is much more detail than what I have posted today. I'll post some effigy pipe pics from Tremper mound later.
          "The education of a man is never completed until he dies." Robert E. Lee

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          • #6
            May I also note that a small conical mound used to be on the very ridge that I live. It was dozed flat by a farmer who wanted a Tobacco field in the 1930's. Now it's all wooded around here, so hunting a plowed field is impossible. But there are plenty of creeks!
            "The education of a man is never completed until he dies." Robert E. Lee

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            • #7
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              Over 90 effigy pipes came from Tremper mound. I think there were 136 in all.
              "The education of a man is never completed until he dies." Robert E. Lee

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              • #8
                Great topic KP. I live where the Caddo also built mounds. There is a state park some 20 miles away. All the artifacts there on display are replica's the original one's were put back in the mounds.

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                • Kentucky point
                  Kentucky point commented
                  Editing a comment
                  Mounds in Texas? That's a first for me. From what I found on the internet, it looks like a cool place!

                  If I was the NP service, I wouldn't advertise that a bunch of rare Indian artifacts are still buried there. It sounds like to much temptation for looters.

                • hudson
                  hudson commented
                  Editing a comment
                  There is security on duty 24-7

              • #9
                I found this link. I don't know if it's true, but it is very interesting.


                https://www.newswire.com/news/portsm...-world-7332408
                "The education of a man is never completed until he dies." Robert E. Lee

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                • #10
                  The Hopewell network, trade,and culture is absolutely fascinating KP! I love that someone your age loves their prehistory so much! Their trade led them here to Western North Carolina for Mica. I'm a long way from Portsmouth just over 300 miles but the Hopewell influence is very noticeable here. One of the more studied spots here in WNC is the Garden Creek Site which mound 2 is a platform mound with Hopewell features and artifacts such as; bar gorgets, clay figurines, Hopewell dentate stamped, zone incised, and Rocker Stamped potsherds. Lots of Ohio lithics are found here such as Ohio Chalcedony blades and Ohio flint and Cherts. You are in an awesome place thanks for the great post!!

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                  • Kentucky point
                    Kentucky point commented
                    Editing a comment
                    I really love the history around here. I thought it would be cool to share it with the rest of you guys.

                    Take a look at Hopewell distribution map on Wikipedia. They really got around!

                • #11
                  Thank you so much for these eye opening posts! I am in amazement! Is that a word?

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                  • Kentucky point
                    Kentucky point commented
                    Editing a comment
                    Yes that's a word

                    Thanks!

                • #12
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                  Some cool pics of Mound Park in Chillicothe Ohio.
                  "The education of a man is never completed until he dies." Robert E. Lee

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                  • #13
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                    "The education of a man is never completed until he dies." Robert E. Lee

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                    • #14
                      "The education of a man is never completed until he dies." Robert E. Lee

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