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  • Northeast Hardaway Variants

    Northeast Hardaway Variants
    Three Hardaway Amigos
    Posted by [CMD]:


    Forum buddies Chris Gode and Jeff Matteson stopped by Saturday and brought along the rare (for this far northeast) Hardaway Side-Notch points each had found. Since I had also found one of the 15 examples known to the late New England typology guru, Jeff Boudreau, I was able to get a group shot of all 3. I had never seen Chris's find, nor he mine. From left to right are mine, made of argillite (argillaceous slate), Chris, not sure of the material but might be hornfels , and Jeff's fine quartzite example, which shows its' serrations in sunlit photos.

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    Posted by [gregszybala]:
    Three of the fifteen known in a group photo by three gents who know each other. How cool is that!


    Posted by [Hoss ]:
    That is very cool Charlie thanks for sharing the picture.


    Posted by [CMD]:
    gregszybala wrote:
    Three of the fifteen known in a group photo by three gents who know each other. How cool is that!

    It is cool that way. And I met Jeff because he posted his Hardaway on a forum. And because Chris had found one, I remembered a point I had that I thought looked like a Hardaway when I found it years ago. And so it was. 3 Amigo Hardaways and 3 amigos who call this forum home.


    Posted by [rmartin]:
    That is quite a little group there. Family reunion!


    Posted by [ksrocks]:
    Nice post there Charlie!!
    Joe.


    Posted by [CMD]:
    Thanks, folks. I should add that although Jeff Boudreau was only aware of 15 examples of this type from New England, there are certainly more out there, both waiting to be found, as well as unrecognized in existing collections.
    I keep six honest serving-men (they taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who.

  • #2
    Posted by [CMD]:
    Forgot to include the other points Chris brought with him last Saturday. Needless to say, Chris hunts a beach to die for, especially with all the exotic material he finds......

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    And, Jeff brought a Hardaway-Dalton that his wife found. 3rd one from left, posing with 2 Hardaway-Dalton points found by Helen years ago. Bear in mind, the New England variant of the Hardaway-Dalton's do not too closely resemble the Hardaway-Dalton's from south of our region...

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    I keep six honest serving-men (they taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who.

    Comment


    • #3
      Posted by [CliffJ]:
      Charlie,
      I like those points. But I have a hard time assigning Hardaway to any of them. Yes, the "Hardaways" that you show do somewhat resemble the type, and the "Hardaway-Daltons" do slightly resemble some from that type- but since typology is very much a matter of geography, and yours are from way out of the Hardaway zone- I believe that they may need their own name in your area. If they have ever been found in a dig in your region in early levels, they may well be Early Archaic and somewhat related to Hardaway. Without context and location, it is difficult to call those first 3 anything but "shallow side-notched", which is proper in such situations. The Hardaway type barely makes it into Virginia, much less further north, from all research I've seen and from my experience with VA and NC collections.
      What is it about those last 3 that indicates that they are Hardaway-Dalton? What size are they?
      Have these same types been found in Early Archaic levels in Conn?


      Posted by [cgode]:
      From a little research, according to Dr. Bellantoni (ct. State archy) and others, the Hardaway is found in the New England area. It is considered a "rare" find up here and is not currently dated as of yet.


      Posted by [CMD ]:
      CliffJ wrote:
      Charlie,
      I like those points. But I have a hard time assigning Hardaway to any of them. Yes, the "Hardaways" that you show do somewhat resemble the type, and the "Hardaway-Daltons" do slightly resemble some from that type- but since typology is very much a matter of geography, and yours are from way out of the Hardaway zone- I believe that they may need their own name in your area. If they have ever been found in a dig in your region in early levels, they may well be Early Archaic and somewhat related to Hardaway. Without context and location, it is difficult to call those first 3 anything but "shallow side-notched", which is proper in such situations. The Hardaway type barely makes it into Virginia, much less further north, from all research I've seen and from my experience with VA and NC collections.
      What is it about those last 3 that indicates that they are Hardaway-Dalton? What size are they?
      Have these same types been found in Early Archaic levels in Conn?

      Before he died, our typology guru, (because let me say upfront, I am simply not qualified IMO to really type these) Jeffery Boudreau sent me the Hardaway-Dalton page from what would have been the 2nd edition of his New England guide showing all 15 he so typed. One in particular he indicated was most like Coe's Hardaway Side-Notch. I think on the one I found, the argillaceous slate example, the other ear would have been symmetrical and the point, with a deep base, side notches, and ears that recurve up that way would have looked like a Hardaway, IMHO. Cliff, if you PM me your email, I can share the file in question with you, and you can judge for yourself where all 15 examples are concerned. Also, Noel Justice's "Stone Age Spear and Arrow Points of the Midcontinental and Eastern United States. A Modern Survey and Reference"(1995), which I like because it groups points in morphological families and gives the correlate names for the same style in different regions, shows a distribution for Hardaway into southernmost New York. He states: "The Hardaway type also occurs in low frequency in the Midwest and the Northeast"(Ritchie and Funk: Evidence for Early Archaic Occupations on Staten Island, Pennsylvania Archaeologist 41(3):45-59). Boudreau also illustrates in his first edition what he calls "an indisputable Hardaway Side-Notched point from the Heard Pond Site" in Wayland, Ma.

      But, send me your email so you can see the file in question. Hardaway-like may be more accurate, I wish Jeff were still alive to discuss this with you, as I cannot take his place to any degree and he would love to have debated this with you. I know Rodney Peck identified the smallest example, that Chris found in Ct., as a Hardaway, but you can judge yourself as well as judge the ones I send you.These early styles are not as well understood in New England as they are elsewhere. The Dalton tradition, per se, has yet to be demonstrated in New England! So how can we have a Hardaway-Dalton?? LOL. There is an article in the journal of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society where the New England H-D is first described. If I can find it.

      In the meantime, from "A New England Typology of Native American Projectile Points"(2008) by Jeffery Boudreau, page 8:

      "the Hardaway-Dalton type (Coe 1964) of the Early Archaic period, is problematic in New England Coe's Hardaway-Dalton appears to be an intergrade between Dalton and the Hardaway Side-Notched. It does demonstrate clear Dalton traits in the haft area. While there is an indisputable Hardaway Side-Notched point from the Heard Pond site in Wayland(Ma), shown on the "Early Rare Types" plate, the Dalton tradition has yet to be demonstrated in New England. The "Hardaway-Dalton" type, in New England, with the exception of serrations and vague shoulders, does not, as a group, resemble points of the Dalton tradition. The New England "Hardaway-Dalton" has straight to convex blade edges that are erase or serrated. Bases are ground and moderately to markedly concave. As a result of resharpening, the haft element is often wider then the blade. It is possible that this type is a vestige of Paleo points with routes in the fluted tradition. The observable preference for local lithics suggest an Archaic rather than Paleoindian orientation to the landscape. This type is undated in New England."

      In his typology, Boudeau assigns it to the earliest Archaic. The quotation marks around Hardaway-Dalton are Boudreau's, so I think he knew exactly where you're coming from Cliff, and I wish they had a different name as well. The quartz example shown has the deepest concave base of the 30 or so I've seen illustrated with basal thinning not really visible in the photo Boudreau used metric averages to distinguish Hardaway-Dalton from Squibnocket triangles and Snappit triangles, which are both Archaic types. Boudreau identified all 3 of the ones shown.They are not extremely rare, but not common. I have some where the haft element is much wider and there is a closer resemblance to classic Hardaway-Dalton. I'll go look for photos I recently took of some. Gotta click submit before it's rejected as too long

      I take as a given that the regionalization of point type names is something that leads to confusion all the time. I'm aware that New England Hardaway-Dalton's would be better off renamed. Cliff, here's a point I don't believe is typed here and it might be an early style. From Plymouth Co., Ma.

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      I keep six honest serving-men (they taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who.

      Comment


      • #4
        Posted by [CMD]:
        Cliff, here's some more photos of what are now called "Hardaway-Dalton" points in New England, with some info on the Early Archaic styles found here. The image can be enlarged. Called Dalton-like here:

        http://www.tauntonriver.org/earlyarchaic.htm

        I've really relied on the typology Boudreau published, but I also know Jeff would be the first to encourage debate on this very subject.

        He encouraged folks, for instance, to disagree with his placement of examples of any type and I'm sure he would not discourage debate where any aspect of typology was concerned. The regionalization makes my head spin at times, but in truth, I'm really only concerned with understanding my own region and its terminology. We, southern New England collectors and archaeologists alike, call argillaceous slate by the name argillite and we call a certain early triangle with the characteristics described above a Hardaway-Dalton. It probably should have a different name, and I appreciate the observation, Cliff. I've wondered myself. But the Hardaway Side-Notch I believe is appropriately named.
        Here's an old photo I took of the one I found. Studying the damage tells me the broken ear would have also had the outward flare and slight curl up. Having seen all the other examples known to Boudreau, I can say the broken ear would have been the mirror image of the intact one, looking like a Hardaway I think. JMO.


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        Also, had to throw this out there regarding type as a function of geography. True, certain styles are found in certain regions, but typology is always, to a certain degree, an artificial imposition:

        http://forums.arrowheads.com/forum/g...cation-systems

        Obviously, I know next to nothing about the Carolina's, but I don't really see why these points are that far away from their overall distribution as I've seen it described and mapped. Outside of their home zone, zone of origin, but not completely unknown outside its home zone and found as far north as New England would be how I'd see it.


        Posted by [CliffJ]:
        I appreciate the pics and links, Charlie. You can send me the file at ncrelics@embarqmail.com if you would.
        I still wonder about size in the pics. The Hardaway is smaller in the hafting area than the Hard-Dalton (or Alamance) and both types are basally thinned, which creates the concave base. I can't really see the flaking on most of the pics though.
        Are there any specimens from up that way that are first (or second)stage, with deeper notches as before much resharpening? These would be like the point at bottom right in Perino's typology. They were often longer as well, up to 4" or so.

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        Posted by [CliffJ]:
        Thanks Charlie!
        Those are great pics, and I'll read it all over asap.
        Durn its cold this morning here! 14 at 5am


        Posted by [CMD ]:
        CliffJ wrote:
        Thanks Charlie!
        Those are great pics, and I'll read it all over asap.
        Durn its cold this morning here! 14 at 5am

        I'll say. 9 degrees here, but the old car turned right over.
        I keep six honest serving-men (they taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who.

        Comment


        • #5
          Posted by [CMD]:
          Just inadvertently deleted a reply to this thread. I had come across an article in The Bulletin of the Archhaeological Society of Connecticut, which discusses the little understood Early Archaic in the Northeast, the presence of point types from an Atlantic Slope Tradition, such as Hardaway, Palmer, and Kirk, and the dissension among archaeologists as to what the Northeast correlates of these SE types should be called. The title is "Beyond Presence and Absence: Establishing Diversity in Connecticut's Early Holocene Archaeological Record". It's on page 79 at this PDF file.

          http://www.connarchaeology.org/ASC62.pdf#page=79

          Another article pertinent to the subject, just the abstract here, but many good articles, including this one, are free with JSTOR registration. You can register as an individual.

          http://www.jstor.org/stable/40914234...n_tab_contents

          And a much shorter summation of the problematic Early Archaic in the Northeast....

          http://curtinarchaeology.com/blog/20...%9Cmissing-200
          (Link not working)

          It's been enjoyable researching the questions you raised, Cliff, questions that have actually been in my mind from the start. I have not resolved them, of course, but I have an even greater appreciation for the Early Archaic points I've found over the years thanks to digging deeper into this subject.


          Posted by [CliffJ]:
          "13). Securely dated examples are scarce, however, and many researchers have expressed reservations about equating these isolated tools with the well-defined types to the south (Snow 1980: 163-166; Moeller 1984).
          Dated, or not, Hardaway, Kirk, and Palmer points are exceedingly rare in New England and adjacent areas."
          It's good to read that I am not the only one to express reservations. That is an interesting article, highlighting just how little is actually known in the region.


          Posted by [CMD]:
          CliffJ wrote:
          "13). Securely dated examples are scarce, however, and many researchers have expressed reservations about equating these isolated tools with the well-defined types to the south (Snow 1980: 163-166; Moeller 1984).
          Dated, or not, Hardaway, Kirk, and Palmer points are exceedingly rare in New England and adjacent areas."
          It's good to read that I am not the only one to express reservations. That is an interesting article, highlighting just how little is actually known in the region.

          Yes, I had pasted the whole paragraph , which included acknowledgement these styles do exist here in the Northeast, and which included the quote above, and then accidentally deleted the entire comment. I've posted that paragraph further down the thread. No, very little known, one more reason I appreciate the rarity of our finds. I just spent some time looking at the Hardaway plates in "The Baucum Hardaway Site" and comparing them to Boudreau's plate of Hardaway points from New England. Not hard at all to see why some believe Hardaways are found in New England. Wish I could post the plate 7 from Peck's Baucum study alongside Boudreau's plate of Hardaways from New England to demonstrate that, but out of respect for the fact that Boudreau's revised edition isn't published, I'm unable to do that. Here's plate 7 from Peck's Baucum study. The point with the letter A next to it is all but the spitting image of the largest example on Boudreau's plate, from Plymouth County, Ma., as well as several other narrow examples shown on Boudreau's plate. The deeply concave based example shown in the same row as Peck's "A" Hardaway is mimicked by several on Boudreau's chart. As the paragraph I quote further down this thread indicates, by whatever name we choose to call them, points that resemble Hardaway points, as well as other points from the Atlantic Slope Tradition, are found here, and as I've learned since this thread began, they are VERY rare. I really believe our regional archaeologists would truly be remiss in not recognizing that Hardaway style points, by whatever name they are called, are found this far north.
          I keep six honest serving-men (they taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who.

          Comment


          • #6
            Posted by [Hoss]:
            CMD wrote:
            Just inadvertently deleted a reply to this thread. I had come across an article in The Bulletin of the Archhaeological Society of Connecticut, which discusses the little understood Early Archaic in the Northeast, the presence of point types from an Atlantic Slope Tradition, such as Hardaway, Palmer, and Kirk, and the dissension among archaeologists as to what the Northeast correlates of these SE types should be called. The title is "Beyond Presence and Absence: Establishing Diversity in Connecticut's Early Holocene Archaeological Record". It's on page 79 at this PDF file.
            http://www.connarchaeology.org/ASC62.pdf#page=79
            Another article pertinent to the subject, just the abstract here, but many good articles, including this one, are free with JSTOR registration. You can register as an individual.
            http://www.jstor.org/stable/40914234...n_tab_contents
            And a much shorter summation of the problematic Early Archaic in the Northeast....
            http://curtinarchaeology.com/blog/20...%9Cmissing-200
            It's been enjoyable researching the questions you raised, Cliff, questions that have actually been in my mind from the start. I have not resolved them, of course, but I have an even greater appreciation for the Early Archaic points I've found over the years thanks to digging deeper into this subject.

            Charlie I still have that complete post they go to another file until being permanently deleted Would you like that reposted? I can do that.


            Posted by [CMD]:
            No thank you, Hoss, I was able to retrieve the paragraph from the "Beyond Presence and Absence" paper:


            “Atlantic Slope Tradition sites share a common bifacial chipped-stone technology. Points associated with the earliest unambiguous manifestation of this tradition in the Northeast include Hardaway, Palmer, and Kirk comer-notched forms initially defined in the Carolinas (Coe 1964). Northeastern examples may be contemporaneous with their southern namesakes, placing them between 9600 and 8500 BP (Funk 1996: 13). Securely dated examples are scarce, however, and many researchers have expressed reservations about equating these isolated tools with the well-defined types to the south (Snow 1980: 163-166; Moeller 1984).

            Dated, or not, Hardaway, Kirk, and Palmer points are exceedingly rare in New England and adjacent areas. A handful have been recovered from the Richmond Hill and Johnsen No.3 sites in New York (Funk 1996), and several sites in the Robbins Swamp Basin in northwestern Connecticut (Nicholas 1988: 272-273). Slightly younger Piedmont Tradition sites are more common and more easily characterized.

            Sites dating between 8600 and 7800 BP typically contain relatively numerous expedient stone tools, including a wide variety of scrapers and other unifaces, "choppers" and small numbers of bifurcate-based points (e.g .. Funk and Wellman 1984; Pfeiffer 1986; Simon 1991; Ferguson 1995). These latter artifacts are the most broadly recognized diagnostic artifacts of the Early Archaic period in the Northeast. Large numbers of bifurcate points have been recovered along the Taunton River and Titticut basins in Eastern Massachusetts, possibly representing focal points within the regional settlement pattern (Taylor 1976; Johnson 1993). Relatively large numbers of Atlantic Slope Tradition diagnostics have also been reported from Robbins Swamp, in the northwest comer of the state, leading Nicholas to suggest that the locality represents a core area during the Early Archaic (Nicholas 1988, Fig. I). Isolated specimens and small collections of bifurcates have been identified from a much wider area, and the points are an uncommon if not unfamiliar element in many large assemblages from southern New England.”

            I believe there are a couple key observations made here. One was highlighted by Cliff. I would like to highlight this observation: " Points associated with the earliest unambiguous manifestation of this tradition in the Northeast include Hardaway, Palmer and Kirk corner-notched forms initially defined in the Carolina's"( Coe 1964 ).


            Posted by [CMD]:
            Sorry to bring this to the top once again, but I just came across info that helps explain one of the problems with recognizing Early Archaic points like Hardaway in the Northeast. It seems that Northeastern archaeologists have perhaps been too accepting of their "depopulation in the Northeast in the Early Archaic" model to recognize that points associated with the Early Archaic in the SE were present:

            "The lack of such evidence northward, therefore, makes enigmatic the change of biface styles that marks the beginning of the subsequent Early Archaic period. The earliest Early Archaic tool styles—the notched Hardaway-Daltons, Palmers, and Kirks—seem, like the first fluted point styles, to be intrusive into the Northeast, this time definitely from the south. There are no antecedents to these styles north of West Virginia, and no unique regional point styles in the eleventh millennium of the Northeast. The clearly southern suite of Early Holocene styles is also discontinuously distributed; more numerous in the south, rare to vanishing in the north (Robinson et al. 1992). Until investigators in the Northeast were forced to recognize the southern types and understand their distant origins, they depended on an environmentally determined depopulation hypothesis to account for a ‘gap' in the human presence in the Northeast after the time of fluted points (Ritchie and Funk 1971:56; see Dincauze and Mulholland [1977] for a discussion of this."

            The above paragraph is from the Northeast section of the National Park Service Archaeological Program. I never got to know Jeff Boudreau well, but I see now that he was part of the effort to fill in he gap for the Early Archaic in New England. He recognized that these styles were present to some degree and he was making that effort to document examples from New England. More will no doubt surface now that their presence is recognized better.

            The Northeast page from which the above was taken. Excellent resource for all collectors.

            https://www.nps.gov/archeology/pubs/...-Northeast.htm

            Here is a link to all geographic sections of "The Earliest Americans Theme Study":

            https://www.nps.gov/archeology/pubs/nhleam/index.htm
            I keep six honest serving-men (they taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who.

            Comment


            • #7
              Posted by [CMD]:
              I believe it's fair to state that the use of the type name Hardaway Side-Notch is controversial, and Cliff's reservations are clearly understandable. Hardaway-Like may be more appropriate. Boudreau does illustrate in his 2008 New England typology examples that bear a striking resemblance to examples illustrated by Jaffre Coe, who established this type name in North Carolina. These points are also undated in New England, but that they are early seems a given. The Hardaway-Dalton type from New England may be an unfair appropriation of type name as well, and may be better described as Dalton-Like.

              North Carolina Hardaways:

              http://www.archaeology.ncdcr.gov/uwh...de_Notched.gif

              North Carolina Hardaway Dalton's:

              http://www.archaeology.ncdcr.gov/uwh...way_Dalton.gif

              These problems of transferring type names from one region to another is a demonstration that this area of American archaeology as a science is still largely at a descriptive level of development. As well, the regionalization of typology can be quite confusing. But there will be analogues from region to region representing point types similar in both form and age while going by different names. Hardaway Side Notch is a North Carolina type. The "look alikes" in the Northeast are likely a bit later in time, but there is likely a relationship caused by the spread northward of the type with changes in morphology evident, but still likely deriving from the earliest examples.
              I keep six honest serving-men (they taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who.

              Comment

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