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Good Reference Books (by Topic)

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  • Good Reference Books (by Topic)

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    Overstreet Guide
    As of August 2015, the 14th printed edition of the “Official Overstreet Indian Arrowheads Identification and Price Guide” became available for purchase. Details in the store section here:

    There are thousands of new illustrations included covering many new point types that have never been seen before, from all over the United States:

    * More than 12,000 actual-size photographs
    * Exciting color section with over 440 actual size photos
    * Special sections on how to identify and grade your points
    * Large format
    * Featuring 10 Geographic Sections PLUS A BRAND NEW section on related High Quality Prehistoric Artifacts collected by some of the Most Distinguished Collectors of today's times
    * Includes revised pricing, new photos, plus a tour of the Museum of Native American History in Bentonville Arkansas.
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    I keep six honest serving-men (they taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who.

  • #2
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    Auction of Prehistoric Indian Artifacts: The Robert N. Converse Auctions 1983-1994
    Robert Haag, M. Ed.

    Available in soft cover and deluxe hardbound limited editions, this illustrated collection contains the Robert Converse Auction catalogs, 1983-1994. There are 30 catalogs in this collection, including sale catalogs for John Sarnovsky, Jack Hooks, and many other notable collectors.

    The second in a three-volume set, this book is a handy reference for collectors of prehistoric Indian art. Thousands of relics can be identified from the pictures within the catalogs. The catalogs also provide valuable information on many specific relics.

    Duplicated from the “Resources” section of and reproduced with permission.
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    I keep six honest serving-men (they taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who.


    • #3
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      The Headpots of Northeast Arkansas and Southern Pemiscot County, Missouri
      James F. Cherry
      Book Review by: Elmer A. Guerri, G.I.R.S. Board Member

      One of the most interesting aspects of collecting and studying Indian artifacts today is the availability of excellent reading and study materials. A great example is the 2009 book by James E Cherry, The Headpots of Northeast Arkansas and Southern Pemiscot County, Missouri.

      Cherry's passionate interest in and his extensive knowledge of this unique and important niche of North American Mississippian Indian culture is clearly evident as the reader proceeds from historical findings through a most comprehensive inventory of discussions dealing with 138 identified classical style headpots, to the author's astute observations regarding modern reproductions.

      The author's thorough research has culminated in a separate section dealing with "Mistakes in the Literature", an inclusion every reader will be left wishing existed for publications and information dealing with other types of cultural material in North American Archaeology.

      Cherry's style reflects the attention to detail and thoroughness of his professional physician's background. Extensive discussions of motifs and style characteristics including eye surrounds, facial decorative tattoo patterns, hair patterns and other details are both educational and provocative. His attempts to depend upon "original sources" accomplishes his stated goal " present unbiased facts."

      The author raises some very interesting questions for the reader, such as,
      "Do headpots portray kinsmen or enemies? The living or the dead? Were the headpots used in ceremonies, in everyday life, or made exclusively for the sepulcher?"
      The reader will have to reach his or her own conclusions, based upon the information provided by the author.

      Perhaps the most fitting compliments to this outstanding book are found in the Foreword provided by Robert C Mainfort, Jr., an archaeologist with the Arkansas Archaeology Survey and a professor of anthropology at the University of Arkansas. "Jim's status as a physician and avocational archaeologist (though this volume should warrant an honorary degree in archaeology!) gave him access not only to privately owned headpots, but also to their history. Moreover, that Jim was accorded this level of trust is a testament to his personal character."

      This a great work and a "must have" reference that will take its place alongside other important books dealing with ceramics and pottery. The author includes a comprehensive bibliography with seventy entries, which will be valuable to those interested in the cultural material of North American Indians.

      This book has established a "higher bar" that will hopefully challenge other authors, professionals and avocationals alike. In today's world of collectible ceramics and pottery where it is regrettably often difficult to discern between "new" and "old", one thing is certain. Cherry's headpot book may itself be "new", but it is indeed "the real thing"!

      Duplicated from the “Resources” section of and reproduced with permission.
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      Mississippian Pottery: A Tribute to Roy Hathcock
      Rick Fitzgerald
      Front Cover

      Image: Winged-eyed Hawk

      Among artifact collectors, Roy Hathcock was a legend. He popularized Native American ceramics of the central Mississippi River Valley by publishing two significant books: Ancient Indian Pottery of the Mississippi River Valley in 1976 and The Quapaw and Their Pottery in 1983. These publications became the cornerstones of today’s pottery collectors.

      The purpose of this tribute is to honor Mr. Hathcock by publishing fifty-five vessels previously owned or pictured by him. Included with each vessel is a page of text discussing provenience, Roy’s comments, owner history, publications, and interesting information that has surfaced since Roy’s original publications. In addition, there are twenty-seven pottery vessels that Roy and I discussed at length during our teacher-student relationship.

      Mr. Hathcock was an extremely knowledgeable collector of Mississippi artifacts who was blessed with a charming personality. He was an outstanding educator for over thirty-five years, and he became a gracious mentor to many collectors during his lifetime. I hope you enjoy this tribute to my friend, Roy Hathcock.

      Back cover

      Image: Tripod Waterbottle

      About Rick Fitzgerald (also on Back Cover)

      Rick Fitzgerald is an associate editor of the Prehistoric American magazine, the official publication of the Genuine Indian Relic Society. He has written a number of articles for the Central States Archaeological Journal as well. A retired Merrill Lynch financial consultant, Mr. Fitzgerald currently teaches graduate-level finance at Southern Nazarene University in Bethany, Oklahoma. He and his wife, Connie, reside in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

      If you are interested in purchasing Mississippian Pottery: A Tribute to Roy Hathcock, please contact Rick Fitzgerald (information below). The cost is $40 which includes postage.

      Rick Fitzgerald
      Phone 405-722-3985
      Email address: [replace the # character with the @ character]

      Duplicated from the “Resources” section of and reproduced with permission.
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      I keep six honest serving-men (they taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who.


      • #4
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        Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms
        Edited by F. Kent Reilly III and James F. Garber

        This is an exceptional group of essays. Mississippian artifacts and architecture are reinterpreted and analyzed in ten lengthy essays by leading anthropologists and archaeologists. The results are a fascinating new view of the Mississippian world.

        The essays discuss religion, the meaning and use of various ceremonial artifacts, the sacred meanings behind the layout of sites and much more. While this is more of an archaeological book than a collectors volume; if you have a fascination with the past this book is a must read.

        The contributors include James Brown, David H.Dye, Alice Kehoe and others. Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms (6 X 9, 299 Pages with many illustrations) may be purchased from the University of Texas Press (800) 252-3206 cost $50.00 (cloth hardbound)

        Reviewed by Steven R. Cooper E.I.C.
        Duplicated from the “Resources” section of and reproduced with permission.

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        Folsom: New Archaeological Investigations of a Classic Paleo Indian Bison Kill
        David J. Meltzer with contributions by M. Balakrishnan, D.A. Dorward V.T. Holliday, B.F. Jacobs, L. Scott-Cummings, T. A. Surovell, J.L. Theler, L.C. Todd, and A.J. Winkler.
        Book Review by: Richard Michael Gramly, Ph.D.

        It is fortunate that the Folsom site still existed allowing archaeologist and university professor, David Meltzer, and colleagues to initiate fresh excavations during 1997. Their 1997-2004 fieldwork had important goals. Foremost was detailed examination of the bed of extinct Bison bones in order to learn more about Folsom hunting and butchering methods. The 1920s fieldwork by Jesse D. Figgins and Harold J. Cook had, as its principal objective, confirmation of an association of artifacts and extinct animals. For them it was all fresh and new - early excavators at Folsom were interested only in the "big picture". Studies of bones would come later.

        A secondary goal of Dave Meltzer's re-visit to the Folsom type site was prospecting for an habitation area. Folsom, as we have known it, is a kill site. According to Meltzer it belongs to an exclusive subset (5%) of documented Folsom occurrences, making it very rare and interesting to students of Paleo-American lifeways. However, the place where the ancient occupants of the Folsom site slept and entertained themselves had never been located. Like the Murray Springs Clovis site in Arizona (Haynes and Huckell 2007), the habitations may have been shallowly buried on nearby higher ground and suffered erosion.

        In this landmark publication Dave Meltzer furnishes us a synthesis of old and new radiocarbon dates for the Folsom site, a taphanomic study of the ancient bone-bed, and information about the flaked stone industry there. For these expectable results we are grateful. But there is much more.

        The reader may find fascinating, as I did, Meltzer's carefully considered perspective about the nature of archaeological discovery. Why is it that certain scientists carry more credibility than others? How does an important find achieve its proper recognition among scientific circles? Although the Folsom site was yielding important data to Figgins, Cook, and others as early as 1926 (Jackson and 82 Thacker 1992), only after bones and artifacts were witnessed in situ by Barnum Brown, Ales Hrdlicka, A.V. Kidder, and Frank Roberts, did the nation give the site its full attention and respect. Meltzer's narrative about sequential scientific revelations (Chapter 2) is awfully good reading.

        Also, as an archaeological practitioner mindful of the history and leavings of his own discipline, Meltzer and colleagues took the trouble to investigate the 1926, 1927, and 1928 camps of fellow archaeologists who labored at the Folsom site (see Appendix C). One expects that Dave Meltzer suitably demarcated his own campsite for the benefit of fellow researchers of the future.

        If there is any shortcoming of David Meltzer's work, it is only one of omission. We might have hoped for fuller treatment of the Lindenmeier site, which was discovered by amateur natural historians in 1924, just as things were getting going at Folsom. Lindenmeier, after all, yielded a wider range and more artifacts than did Folsom, for it was an encampment. The associated kill site has either vanished because of erosion or still lies deeply buried in the general neighborhood. Lindenmeier and Folsom became entwined intellectually much as the Clovis type locality at Blackwater Draw, New Mexico, became linked to the Lehner and Naco sites in Arizona.

        Figure 1. Lindenmeier crew, 1939. Photo by Frank Roberts. According to Ed Lohr, who retained this photograph until 1987, "This was the best crew Roberts had up there during my 4-summer stint. Left to right, Bart Greenwood, Bill Wallrich, Charles Scoggin, Bart Lohr, Bob Stafford, Ted Peterson, and Ed Lohr. Note: Bart Lohr was my younger brother - he was camp boy and helped my sister, who was cook that year." R.M. Gramly.

        Figure 2. Lindenmeier site, 1938. Photo by Ed Lohr. According to Ed Lohr, "Old valley floor just above knees of Davey McAllester (holding rod). We dug this hole to see if anything lay below the Folsom level - nothing there. Underneath the black layer was a whitish clay - tuffs from an ancient volcano. Digging, to left, Larry Oppenheimer, and to right, Ed Lohr. Incidentally, practically all artifacts were just at the bottom of the soil layer, rarely extending more than an inch into the black, which was caused by heavy grass growth. The best of the Folsom points lay the deepest, indicating that the technique of making the points was fully developed by the time this hunting group first came there." R.M. Gramly.

        Part of the reason why Dave Meltzer has given short shrift to Lindenmeier, failing to cite some relevant early publications (Coffin 1937; Roberts 1937; Greenway 1960; Wilmsen 1974), is because it was reported initially by artifact collectors with only local reputations. He may have been as mindful of status as the intellectuals involved with Early Man research during the 1920s appear to have been. Later during the 1930s, a full decade after the work at Folsom, Lindenmeier would receive the publicity it deserved. A concluding report about investigations there, however, would not appear until 40 years later (Wilsen and Roberts 1978). As Meltzer has so carefully noted, it is the status of the messenger - not necessarily the content of the message being carried - that determines if and when it will be read!

        The ten year delay in investigating the Lindenmeier site has had both good and bad outcomes. Lindenmeier would have made a much better type site for Folsom industry than Folsom itself as the quantity and range of artifact types there were great. On the other hand, are not we (who are poor spellers) lucky that Folsom points were not named Lindenmeier points! Another good outcome is that Lindenmeier in the 1930s was not as remote as Folsom during the 1920s; consequently, it was visited by many people in automobiles with cameras. Thousands of excavation photographs must still exist in private hands (see Figs. 1, 2, and 3); while, as Dave Meltzer has learned, photographs of the work at Folsom are scarce and are jealously guarded by archivists.

        Figure 3. Lindenmeier site, August 1, 1940. Photo by Ed Lohr. One of the best points (found by Charles Scoggin) from Lindenmeier. According to Ed Lohr, "Made of white chert. Large chalcedony scraper to left. Incidentally, some Folsom points were so individually made that it was obvious that the same person had made them. Most of the points were bases only - hunters had obviously broken them while hunting, had brought the shafts back to camp, and thrown the bases away. Roberts did not rule out the possibility that the bow and arrow was used even at that early date (probably about 11,000 years ago). Usually the atl-atl was thought to have been used R.M. Gramly.
        In conclusion, no library about Paleo-Americans is complete without a copy of David J. Meltzer's wonderful publication. I wish that there were more studies like it, to fill the spaces on my book shelves, which I have reserved for work that eventually must be done!

        Review of Folsom: New Archaeological Investigations of a Classic Paleo Indian Bison Kill - 374 pp., 8 1/2 x 11, indexed, numerous black-and-white photographs and figures. University of California Press. 2006. ISBN-`3: 978-0-520-24644-7. $55.00
        University of California Press, 2120 Berkeley, CA 94704

        Duplicated from the “Resources” section of and reproduced with permission.
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        Footpaths to Ancient Campsites in Copley Township, Ohio
        Robert Haag, M. Ed.

        This beautifully illustrated, 184 page soft-bound monograph contains 200+ photos of artifacts collected by generations of Copley residents and five never-before-published Frank Wilcox revision drawings of the Muskingum, Mahoning, and Cuyahoga war trails that encircle Copley Township. Sixteen color pages of the most interesting and valuable artifacts found in Copley are featured, along with drawings of ancient trails and campgrounds.

        Haag, a Copley native, describes the topography of this ancient crossroads, environmental change caused by settlement, and the location of ancient trails and campsites.

        Duplicated from the “Resources” section of and reproduced with permission.
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        I keep six honest serving-men (they taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who.


        • #5
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          Come Tell Me How You Lived
          Charles Enloe Moore

          This book is prefaced with a free verse poem where the author asks Early Man how he lived. After his response, Early Man asks the archaeologist what he does. Then readers are challenged to learn from the answers while reading about Native American cultures, from migration into this country to the Trail of Tears in the Tennessee Valley.
          There are over 270 pictures of artifacts, site work, and maps illustrating their interesting story. The book introduces several new theories that have never been seen in print before.

          B. Bart Henson's additional appendix on rock art in the Tennessee Valley certainly helps to make the book worthwhile and interesting reading.

          Duplicated from the “Resources” section of and reproduced with permission.
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          Birth of a Culture
          Teresa K. Putty and Don R. Ham

          We are living in a truly fantastic time. The past few years have produced some of the greatest books ever written about archaeology and prehistoric cultural material. One such book is Birth of a Culture, by Teresa K. Putty and Don R. Ham, a "must-have" library addition for professionals and collectors.

          Birth of a Culture contains a wealth of photos of impressive objects from a previously under-published period of pre-history. The Red Jasper Focus culture (3000 B.C.-600 A.D.) of Middle-Eastern Tennessee was characterized by a sophisticated combination of utilitarian design and creative artistic flair. For many professionals and collectors several images of important objects will be seen for the first time in this book.

          This reviewer recalls the skeptical responses of many when the Red Jasper Focus assemblage was first presented at artifact shows - "This material is just too perfect, and there is just too much of it to be real!" But as more people were able to examine the material up-close-and-personal, and as people became aware of how truly remarkable the material had been excavated and curated, the doubts disappeared.

          Show sponsors who at first were hesitant to permit the material to be displayed began calling Don Ham to make sure he was now bringing that "awesome case" to their shows, their general opinion having been changed to "Wow! Everyone needs to be able to see this stuff! It's really important!" Important it is, and the book underlines that fact.
          Through the professional efforts of archaeologist author Teresa K. Putty and the benevolent dedication and commitment of the assemblage curator Don R. Ham, Birth of a Culture now makes it possible for every professional and every collector and anyone interested in the Red Jasper Focus people to personally have their own valuable reference with clear images of important cultural material. Upon studying the book one will quickly realize the word "Wow!" only partially acknowledges the importance and the uniqueness of this assemblage.

          In addition the tastefully presented photos of the actual Red Jasper Focus sites throughout the book serve as garnishments to the story told by the well prepared photos and text, and they become an additional important contribution of this impressive work. As one studies the riverine settings of those sites the tendancy is to vicariously imagine the excitement of discovery and seeing for the first time in centuries the magnificent remnants of a once thriving culture.

          Perhaps the greatest message this book offers to professionals and collectors is that much can be gained through cooperative efforts of those who have an insatiable appetite to see more and learn more and think and conjecture more about those wonderful prehistoric people. Birth of a Culture is an important entrée to help satisfy that appetite.
          This most comprehensive and well presented book, like a favorite recipe, will be cherished and often revisited and kept-on-a-shelf-close-by! Enjoy!

          Birth of a Culture ISBN No. 0-9707547-3-6 Published by Woodburn Graphics
 [replace the # character with the @ character] 252-747-5516

          Duplicated from the “Resources” section of and reproduced with permission.
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          I keep six honest serving-men (they taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who.


          • #6
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            Indian Bannerstones and Related Artifacts
            Lar Hothem & James R. Bennett

            Begun by the late Lar Hothem and completed by James R. Bennett, this co-authored identification and value guide focuses on the very popular and often ornate Indian bannerstone artifacts of ancient America. With several hundred full-color photographs representing some of America's most famous bannerstone collections, Indian Bannerstones -and- Related Artifacts gives collectors an in-depth look at hundreds of the most prized ancient weapon components collected in modern times, including many rare and valuable examples.

            Duplicated from the “Resources” section of and reproduced with permission.
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            By Richard Michael Gramly, PhD

            By DAVID L. LUTZ

            Bannerstones exist both in art and anthropology. David L. Lutz, who has both a collector's sensitivity and formal training in anthropology, knows this fact. Other long*time students of the subject also appreciate the fact and so, too, will careful readers of The Archaic Bannerstone. Although Lutz acknowledges a debt to earlier researchers such as Knoblock (1939), Webb (his many writings), and Kwas (1981), years of systematic inquiries and travel to document collections have earned him the right to speculate about what bannerstones meant to the ancient American societies who made and used them. Dave's ideas command our attention.

            In the space of 525 pages he presents thousands of superb photographs representing at least as many artifacts, which are the basis of his arguments. Lutz believes that bannerstones were not tools, but actual emblems of societal membership. In his opinion they were tangible manifestations of persons' kinship or membership in clans. They may also have had economic value to clansmen, who conducted long-distance trade that brought shell from the Gulf of Mexico to the South (pp. 247, 431, and 510). The areas of distribution (p. 93) or exchange networks we assume, were larger than mere tribal territories. Bannerstones, as clan emblems, also endured for a much longer time than individual tribes or "nations" might be expected to persist.

            Chronology, or the longevity and succession of the many forms of bannerstone through the centuries, is one of Dave Lutz's primary concerns. His book has as many facts about dating as any one researcher might be expected to gather in a lifetime, and more than any reader might hope to assimilate during several sittings! Dave pays particular attention to co-occurrences of bannerstones and other artifact types useful for dating -- such as projectile points. It is to the author's lasting credit that he has crafted a work that presents so many critical facts relative to this topic.

            Bannerstones have long been regarded as art -- witness their places in books like Hothem's Ancient Art of Ohio (1994), Brose et al.'s Ancient Art of the American Woodlands (1985), and Douglas and D'Harnoncourt's Indian Art of the United States (1941) -- to name a few. Dave Lutz is also aware of the strong visual impact that finely crafted bannerstones of choice raw materials have. He has illustrated many examples in full color within this volume. But to him even the use of certain stones has chronological value; he speculates as well that some raw materials were culturally, if not socially, expressive (for example, pp. 94 and 464).

            Scattered throughout The Archaic Bannerstone are brief sections offering anecdotal and previously published information about famous discoveries, such as the Godar site (p. 321), and Dave's own answers to often-asked questions, such as (p. 427) why were some bannerstones left undrilled when they were completed in every other way? His answers have the ring of credibility tempered in the fire of long familiarity. A book as impressive as Dave's leaves one thirsting for more, and should it ever be reprinted, as researchers are sure to demand one day, both an Index and a Glossary should be added. His use of terminology assumes a reader's familiarity with Knoblock's Bannerstones of the North American Indian (1939). Although I have carefully leafed through this classic work, I never felt justified in paying the considerable price in order to own it. Other readers may be in the same position -- therefore, the need for a glossary. Dave's book deserves to stand all on its own, owing nothing, but perhaps inspiration itself, to earlier works.

            Being a "married-in", adoptive New Englander, who is familiar with the rich record of Archaic sites -- both on the islands and estuaries of sea-girt "downeast" as well as along major waterways (like the Connecticut and Androscoggin) of the Interior -- I would hope that a future expanded version of The Archaic Bannerstone would picture some of the wonderfully delicate, impressive large bannerstones of this region. Many have exact provenience, and, yes, have been absolutely and relatively dated!

            My real concern about The Archaic Bannerstone is that it will not be read by all the academic archaeologists who would stand to benefit from it. Truly, today certain fields of knowledge are better understood by astute North American artifact collectors and amateur scientists than they are by professionals with PhDs. This much I will admit myself. But Dave Lutz's unique perspective on bannerstone-using Archaic groups cannot, and will not, be ignored for long by the audience who needs it most. There are scholars, who know a good thing when they read it, to bridge the gap.

            Thank you, Dave. North Andover, Massachusetts December, 2001

            The author of The Archaic Bannerstone is shown in his relic room admiring one of the Hooked bannerstones from the Rockport site cache.

            "Three Atlatl Cache", Rockport site bannerstone cache found by the Lutz family on April 20, 1977. These banners were found in a feature on the Rockport site, Spencer County, Indiana. All three were "ceremonially killed". Two of these bannerstones are of the rare Hooked style, while the third is an Hourglass type. (David Lutz Collection, Newburgh, Indiana) (David Lutz photo)

            Duplicated from the “Resources” section of and reproduced with permission.
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            Bannerstones - An Ancient Native American Art Tradition
            By Edward Harvey; introduction by Richard Townsend; foreword by David Lutz.
            CD-ROM REVIEW By Richard Sisson, G.I.R.S. Member

            This study published in CD Rom format by Edward Harvey constitutes a major contribution to understanding the development and appreciation of the art of the banner-stone of ancient North America. This is true for several reasons. The author provides in succinct form both a summary and synthesis of what is known about these enigmatic objects, building upon and extending the majesterial books of Byron Knoblock and David L. Lutz, with a very special debt to the seminal work of the latter. He sets forth various competing theories of ceremonial function and everyday use, with inference elaborated from major archaeological contexts, though admittedly many of the finest examples have been surface finds. Through a wide range of high resolution photographs, he vividly portrays the extraordinary beauty of this major art form of the American Archaic, and by utilizing the wonders of digital technology, he has provided all interested in this art form an exceptional educational tool, given its ease of access and versatility.

            It is especially in the latter two ways that the author has given us a work of both immediate and lasting value. While the point is not explicit, he suggests that anyone of any culture on the planet must marvel at how the ancient sculptors who created these objects could see into the dense material that they worked, and with only the simplest instruments in hand, would encourage the material to yield its beauty and magnify the abstract forms that the artist envisaged. This was done through the utilization of banding in early slate banners to accent contours and ridges, and the use of lustrous quartz - cool whites to flaming oranges and reds - to induce wonder and mood. The author approaches his subject with the eye of the artist, which indeed he was, and in so doing has helped to elevate the art of the American bannerstone into the broader realm of the world's finest prehistoric art. It would seem that he saw these artists, whose names have been lost to time, as the Picassos of the Archaic.

            The study has strong and versatile educational legs. The inquisitive learner can easily go from section to section or page to page by simply clicking on the desired venue. One can go from useful and colorfully drawn timelines to more detailed artistic examples elsewhere, or to examples nested in their archaeological context or to other informative and artful sites by a simple "click of the mouse." The references provided constitute a definitive guide for serious students of the subject.

            This important and versatile CD Rom study is essential for anyone interested in the ancient art of the world, but particularly those interested in the ancient art of the Americas, and especially those interested in that of the American Midwest, the East and the South. The study is rich in form and color, it is stimulating to the eye and mind, and it is accessible to the beginner and to the advanced student and connoisseur alike.

            Duplicated from the “Resources” section of and reproduced with permission.

            Ed Harvey, who taught in the Fine Arts department of a college in California began creating the CD with the idea of making it available as a teaching aid for courses in art and archaeology. Sadly Ed sadly died of cancer in 2002 and didn't have chance to introduce it into his courses or offer it to other colleges and universities. Terry was the principal photographer on the project and completed and published the work after Ed’s death.

            To order this CD (Hybrid CD-ROM for Mac/PC) please contact Terry McGuire:
            Email: bucketncorkscrew AT aol DOT com [replacing the AT with @, and the DOT with a . )
            Tel: (773) 283-9943
            Address: 3926 North Keeler Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60641
            Current price: $40.00 plus $4 shipping (confirmed correct as of May 2014)
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            I keep six honest serving-men (they taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who.


            • #7
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              Two Essays: Chief & Greed
              Edmund Carpenter

              Book Review by: Oliver T. Skrivanie G.I.R.S. Member

              The author, Edmund Carpenter, was a trustee of the Museum of the American Indian (MAI) in New York City from 1973 to 1985. His essays expose the shocking conduct of its founder, George Heye, and the secrecy, concealment, and breach of fiduciary duty of certain directors and officers of MAI.

              George Heye was the sole heir to a fortune derived from the sale of an oil refinery and pipeline by his father to John D. Rockerfeller for $35,000 in cash and 150 shares of Standard Oil in 1876. The MAI was the end result of over 85 years of collecting by George Heye. This fascinating writing takes us behind Heye's wealth and discloses the "real" George Heye.

              Heye was ruthless in his dealings and in collecting. As reported: "He expressed no need to explain what he did and didn't!" The book addresses the process of "accessioning" and "field collecting" with interesting short tales and overviews of "suppliers" by name. Heye actually did all of the cataloging of artifacts, and there were no "provenance unknown" objects, as Heye supplied provenance by guess which became fact! The sheer volume of artifacts and collections accumulated in the early 1900s by Heye is mind boggling. "Chief", the title of the first essay, is most appropriate!

              The second essay is entitled "Greed", which explores the disturbing and appalling conduct of certain trustees of the MAI. I think we have all wondered what goes on behind the scenes - well, you'll find out! New levels of secrecy, concealment, and breach of fiduciary duty are recounted by the author.

              The sad conversation of George Heye to a leading dealer in Indian artifacts is divulged. Deaccession of MAI artifacts began occurring at a record pace. Even after Heye's death in 1957, one of his successors, Frederick Dockstader, continued to sell, trade and give away thousands of objects each year from 1960 to 1975. After Dockstader's dismissal, the Chairman of the Board of MAI permitted the continuation of sales! Even a Collections Committee policy aimed to terminate such conduct was ignored!

              The last section of this essay covers the period of time when the author served as a trustee of MAI. There is an intriguing account of Dr. Arthur Sackler's acquisition of MAI objects and associated litigation. Sackler was a very high profile collector and this reviewer recalls that he endowed a wing at the new National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C. (NMAI).

              The legacy of Heye and the malfeasance of certain MAI trustees is that between 60,000 and 90,000 objects "departed" from the MAI!

              Add this 2005 writing to your bookshelf - and periodically re-read.

              Two Essays: Chief & Greed - Soft cover; $35.00
              Persimmon Press P.O. Box 821, North Andover, MA 01845

              Duplicated from the “Resources” section of and reproduced with permission.
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              The Art Gerber Story - A Lifetime of Collecting Along the Ohio River
              Arthur Joseph Gerber

              Book Review by: Oliver T. Skrivanie G.I.R.S. Member

              Long before "Indiana Jones" there was "Indiana Gerber"!!! The primary focus of the author's personal archaeological adventures recounted in this book is the famous Crib Mound located along the Ohio River in Spencer County, Indiana. The Crib Mound was a multi-component site with its lower section composed of shell midden laid down during the Archaic period and the upper section composed of black humus built up later during the Woodland Period. Sadly reflected was the failure of the professional archaeology community to investigate one of the most significant archaeological sites along the Ohio River. The author recounts his and others' personal expeditions to the Crib Mound and the Raiders-of-the-Lost-Ark-like resulting adventures. The frisson generated by the discovery of 10,000 cache blades at Crib Mound can only be imagined! The sheer volume of artifacts found at or near the Crib Mound is truly amazing, and Gerber, through his professional photographic expertise, documents and allows us to view these mesmerizing treasures - from bannerstones to flint to axes to cache blades to pipes to copper to shell. Equally important is a photographic section depicting the gradual erosion and almost complete obliteration of the Crib Mound site by the mighty Ohio River.

              Thus, thanks to this author, the spectacular fluorescence of the Crib Mound has been captured by the author's personal anecdotes, photos of the site, and photos of the scintillating diversity of artifacts found at the site.

              Another section of the book addresses the alleged destruction of the GE Hopewell Mound in Posey County, Indiana which ultimately resulted in the very controversial arrest, conviction, and sentencing of the author under ARPA.

              Other chapters cover the author's collecting adventures along the Ohio River and his accumulation of one of the premier collections of prehistoric artifacts in the United States. The beauty and enormity of the author's entire artifact collection are also superbly contained in the photographic portion of the book. I am sure you will spend countless hours admiring the assembled artifacts, all of which reflect the author's genuine passion and enthusiasm as an artifact collector.

              Finally, the author includes an interesting section of personal photos of collectors and friends, many of whom you will immediately recognize.

              This is unconditionally a must reference for every collector of prehistoric artifacts.

              The Art Gerber Story - Hard cover; $100.00 plus $12.00 priority shipping Deluxe hard cover; $150.00 plus $12.00 priority shipping
              Caddo Trading Co., P.O. Box 669, Murfreesboro, AR 79158 [replacing the # character with the @ character] (870) 285-3736

              Duplicated from the “Resources” section of and reproduced with permission.
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              I keep six honest serving-men (they taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who.


              • #8
                FAKES -and- REPRODUCTIONS
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                Faking the Ancient Andes
                Karen O. Bruhns Nancy L. Kelker

                Introduction: Faking Andean Art

                Originally we planned a single comprehensive volume dealing with fakes, forgeries, and forgers from all across the ancient Americas, but as the project neared completion, it became evident that the scope of the problem of false antiquities and their counterfeiters was much larger than could be dealt justice in a single book; Mesoamerica and the Andes required their own separate volumes. Faking the Ancient Andes, like its companion volume on Mesoamerica, is an in-depth look at forgeries of ancient South American art, the history of this industry in the Andes, materials and techniques of manufacture specific to this region, and of course, the South American master artisans who produce the goods sold by dealers around the world as authentic antiquities.

                Because of their relatively greater distance from North American and European markets and scholarship, the forgers active in South America are generally less well known than their counterparts in Mexico and Central America; they are, nonetheless, as inventive, crafty, and as prodigious in their output as forgers who reside nearer to our borders. If anything, distance from the major American and European markets, coupled with a dearth of art historical scholarship (and, if truth be told, relatively little archaeological scholarship as compared with that for Mesoamerica) on the various South American cultures, has been a boon to forgers, if not necessarily raising the prices the middlemen will pay. But most importantly, the collecting and dealing communities have only the vaguest understanding of the Andean cultures; their ignorant bliss makes passage of even the most egregious forgeries considerably easier. In short, the average American has no knowledge of any Andean culture before the Inca. Indeed, many antiquities, real and faux, being offered for sale in galleries and on the Internet are identified simply as "pre-Incan," a label guaranteed to cloak a multitude of sins.

                The history of antiquities forgery in the Andes does not offer the scholar the wealth of original documentation that is to be found in Mexico - unfortunately, no Peruvian or Colombian counterpart to Leopoldo Batres seems to have been hot on the trail of Andean forgers early on. Yet the antiquities forgery industry in the Andes is surely as old and as ignoble as that in Mesoamerica. Certainly the large numbers of "Inca"-style wooden kenos manufactured during the Colonial period point to an early and robust market for antiquities. Other anecdotal evidence comes from the very early and widespread looting of archaeological sites in Peru - for example, the near eradication of the Huaca del Sol pyramid at Moche in 1602 by Spanish treasure hunters (disguised as "miners"). As always, where there is a market demand for antiquities, enterprising suppliers will step in to provide product either through increased looting activity or through the manufacture of new "antiquities." Writing in 1886, William Henry Holmes notes that in the large shipments of spurious antiquities being brought into the United States, "Peru is hardly less fully represented [than Mexico], as the factories in that country have been at work for a number of years" (1886b, 264).

                Still, 122 years after Holmes, the problem of Precolumbian art forgeries continues unabated and little noted, though substantially amplified in volume, and even more so since Ekholm (1964) wrote his more modern appraisal of the situation. This is a particularly astonishing situation considering that over the same period of time, considerable progress has been made in the discovery and debunking of European forgeries, thanks to the efforts of scholar-detectives such as Oscar White Muscarella, Michel van Rijn, Arthur Brand, and Jerome M. Eisenberg (among many others). Why, then, has so little progress been made in the field of Americanist fake-busting? The answer to this question, the authors believe, lies in the distinction made between the civilized and the primitive, and the relative aesthetic (and monetary) value placed on the art and artifacts of each. Inasmuch as the art of the Classical world is the foundation and continuing inspirational source of European (civilized) art, its value and aesthetic merit are a given. However, the same assumption is not made about the art of the Prehispanic cultures of the New World, or the rest of the so-called "non-Western" world - the politically correct substitution for the older "primitive" but still a term that speaks of separation into "us" and "the other."

                The assumption of un-art-worthiness has long been applied to the work of Native American peoples. In 1896 Aby Warburg, a German national, visited the United States and made a trip out to the American Southwest to visit the Pueblos; there he was to have, unbeknownst to him, the sort of "authentic" experience tailor-made for railroad tourists by Thomas Keams and other trading-post entrepreneurs. Presuming himself unable to speak directly with the natives - as he did not speak any indigenous language and it never occurred to him that some might speak Spanish (or English) - Warburg launched full speed into supposition mode, inventing meanings for decorative motifs found on the reproduction Sikyatki pottery the Pueblo ceramists were making for the tourist market. After identifying what he presumes to be a "bird hieroglyph" on one of these pots, Warburg compounds supposition into cosmology.

                The bird plays an important part in Indian mythical perception, as anyone familiar with the Leatherstocking Tales knows. Apart from the devotion it receives, like every other animal, as a totem, as an imaginary ancestor, the bird commands a special devotion in the context of the burial cult. It seems even that a thieving bird-spirit belonged to the fundamental representations of the mythical fantasies of the prehistoric Sikyatki. The bird has a place in idolatrous cults for its feathers. The Indians have made a special prayer instrument out of small sticks - bahos; tied with feathers, they are placed on fetish altars and planted on graves. According to the authoritative explanations of the Indians, the feathers act as winged entities bearing the Indians' wishes and prayers to their demoniac essences in nature. (Preziosi 1998, 182)

                For Warburg, the Pueblo peoples were the essential "primitive": ignorant and childlike in their superstitions and idolatry (not to mention coterminous with indigenous people from a very distant part of the United States, as described by James Fenimore Cooper some 50 years previously!). This attitude toward art outside the European tradition was pretty much a constant in twentieth-century art history. As Meyer Shapiro notes some three decades later:

                In the past, a great deal of primitive work, especially representation, was regarded as artless even by sensitive people; what was valued were mainly the ornamentation and the skill of primitive industry. It was believed that primitive arts were childlike attempts to represent nature - attempts distorted by ignorance and by an irrational content of the monstrous and grotesque. (Preziosi 1998, 147)

                Of course, Shapiro, writing in 1953, goes on to point out how much that attitude had changed in his time with the development of modern styles and resulting new ways of looking at art:

                As a result of this new approach, all the arts of the world, even the drawings of children and psychotics, have become accessible on a common plane of expressive and form-creating activity. Art is now one of the strongest evidences of the basic unity of mankind. (Preziosi 1998, 148)

                By grouping the arts of the non-Western world with that of children and psychotics (two groups whose creations are also not considered real art), and by link*ing them as expressive and form-creating activities rather than as aesthetic activities, Shapiro, too, dismisses "primitive" art but with less incendiary language than that used by others he criticizes as "in the past." Unfortunately, such attitudes linger to the present day, particularly among those who study the art of the Western tradition. Not so many years ago, Kelker was asked by a Renaissance art historian from a nationally noted university to explain why Precolumbian works should be considered art at all since they were not like works hanging on the gallery wall, the works she studied. This bias against the "primitive" is one of the reasons that art history and museum studies seem to be so little concerned with authenticity in Precolumbian art. If it is not "real art," what does it matter if the example is a fake?

                A second complicating factor is the rise of the "New Art History" which, since its inception some 40 years ago in the hallowed halls of certain left and right coast universities, has moved ever further from the study of the object (connoisseurship) and from rational exploration of the cultures producing those objects. The focus of the New Art History is on theory and methodology (as long as it isn't formalism, the tool of connoisseurship); as one newly minted Ph.D. from one of these institutions once remarked to Kelker, "Nobody deals with the object anymore!" Of course, Luddites such as the authors might think that takes all the fun out of it, but the more problematic result is a whole generation of art historians largely unable to deal intelligently with the primary evidence of their field, much less tell the real from the faux.

                This approach and its ramifications for the museum world are perhaps best illustrated by Donald Preziosi, who in an article titled "The Art of Art History" in his anthology of the same name (1998, 511-512)), compares the museum to a novel or story:

                In essence, both novel and museum evoke and enact a desire for panoptic or panoramic points of view from which it may be seen that all things may indeed fit together in a true, natural, real, or proper order. Both modes of magic realism labour at convincing us that each of us could "really" occupy privileged synoptic positions, despite all the evidence to the contrary in daily life, and in the face of domination and power.

                Exhibition and art historical practice (both of which are subspecies of museography) are thus genres of imaginative fiction. Their practices of composition and narration constitute the "realities" of history chiefly through the use of prefabricated materials and vocabularies - tropes, syntactic formulas, methodologies of demonstration and proof, and techniques of stagecraft and dramaturgy. Such fictional devices are shared with other genres of ideological practice such as organized religion and the entertainment - that is, the containment - industries.

                Certainly if one approaches the museum and its contents as works of fiction, then the fact that some items are more fictional than others becomes irrelevant: one story of history is as good as the next. Thus it should come as no surprise to the reader that those reliquariums called antiquities galleries and those entertainment venues called museums should be loaded with forgeries. Or that exhibition after exhibition, catalog after catalog, illustrated art book after illustrated art book, should all promulgate the most egregious forgeries as if they were something other than proof of the cupidity and insanity of the art market and its customers.

                Still, in the hope that the pendulum of art history, having swung over time away from the contextual study of the object to the polytheoretical extreme of object-negation, will someday find a point of harmonious balance, the authors offer this volume to all who are now, and who might become, interested in the problem of fakes and forgeries of Andean art. In doing so, we would like to emphasize that nearly all of our examples have been previously published in scholarly publications, newspapers, or on websites. The individuals identified and the situations described are genuine and widely known. Other materials, of course, come from our own experiences with law-enforcement agencies, government agencies, and, as well, smugglers, dealers, collectors, and others of similarly ignoble nature. Archaeology and art history have very active information networks, especially with regard to scandalous behavior. We have utilized these when they point to an emerging problem or a problem that, for various reasons, is not going to emerge into the light of day for some time. We have confirmed as best we can the details of these accounts and used them judiciously, discarding what could not be verified. Many people working in the Precolumbian art world are under considerable pressure from politicians, well-heeled donors, university administrators, and museum trustees to ignore common decency as well as federal and international law. They risk losing their jobs if they are honest. We would especially like to thank a number of these brave people who revealed to us the dirty little secrets of the Andean forgeries game. (We promised never to breathe their names in public because, as everyone knows, presidents and directors tend toward paranoid and sometimes vindictive behavior, especially when they know they are in the wrong.) We would also like to note again that in these two volumes, we have barely scratched the surface of the forgeries game. At the risk of being bores ourselves, we would like to remind our readers that every single style we have ever heard of has been faked - even styles you would think no one in his/her right mind would bother with. For example, Momil pottery, a style known only from sherds and bits and pieces from a single excavation, has been faked! This style, once thought to represent America's first ceramics and found in a place that has been very difficult and dangerous to get to for most of the past 30 years or so, still has considerable appeal as the "Earliest Ever." Despite the fact that that's pretty much the only possible appeal it could have, someone, realizing that "early" equates with market share, proceeded to satisfy that demand for these difficult-to-acquire antiquities - with fake potsherds and all! No money-making possibility is ever ignored in the great and wonderful world of looting, smuggling, and vending ancient art.

                In this volume we have dealt primarily with the Andes. We have not attempted to cover Chile, Bolivia, Argentina, the Amazon, or the Guineas; nor most of lower Central America - not that these areas are free from forgery. Far from it, and we could cite chapter and verse. But there is simply too much material and far too much good material in our focus area. And not all of this is shiny new While having the pleasure of corresponding with Zenon Gallegos Ramirez, one of the foremost living artists of the Nazca tradition, we went through the catalogs from a major auction house from the late 1960s through the mid-1990s, looking at the Nazca pieces offered up to the market. In our opinion (and that of the several southern Peruvian experts we consulted), perhaps 70 to 85 percent of the pieces were "iffy," if not downright ludicrous. Apparently they all sold, and many were resold over the years. A fair number have ended up in museums too. Well, that's Nazca, a flashy style much loved by collectors, especially if a little sex or a little more realistic modeling can be added. But we also ran into forgeries from the nineteenth century, some maybe even earlier, and, of course, many from the early twentieth century.

                With the exception of those entirely made-up styles which tend to wax and wane in the market over time, the efforts of donor countries to protect their heritage from First World marauders has only spurred the creation of new forgeries. The human quest for prestige and conspicuous consumption being what it is, there is no end of people wanting exotic things to display on their mantlepiece or to trade for the supposed status of being a benefactor of culture to the local museum. No one, of course, mentions to that benefactor that his esteem has come at the price of the destruction of yet another ancient site or culture. Nor does anyone tell the self-important benefactor, so prideful of his possessions, that his collection consists of a great many fakes.

                And, of course, the most outrageous forgeries do end up in exhibits and in museum collections. Despite all the hype by museum public relations departments about the preservation of art and culture, the truth is that museums are, in reality, business entities thinly disguised as cultural institutions. Moreover, the art and museum worlds are perhaps the least regulated of all businesses. The most casual reading of any issue of, say, The Art Newspaper, will show how fraud, forgery, and misrepresentation of all kinds - from the origin of objects to their supposed meaning and, above all, their value in dollars and cents - are standard operating procedure in the very lucrative art and antiquities market. However, that is well beyond the scope of this volume. What concerns us are the vast numbers of forged South American artifacts on display and in circulation and how these frauds have and continue to affect scholarship, making a good deal of it nothing more than so much useless hot air. Our aim is to convince you, the reader, to open your eyes to the realities of the situation. Every country in Latin America prohibits the looting of ancient sites for treasure as well as the export of its past. And let us have no more yammering about those imaginary "old collections." We note with some glee that virtually everything on sale now is claimed to have been out of its country of origin before 1970, the date the American Association of Museums has pegged as the cutoff for ethically importing antiquities. We won't comment on this, even though Peru, Bolivia, and a host of other countries have prohibited the export of their past at least since the late 1900s (Mexico seems to have been the first, in 1829). Setting a date is a start and certainly better than the old "stolen fair and square" attitude; but considering that the flow of illegal (and fake) antiquities has increased exponentially since the 1970s, one can only surmise that many thousands of overloaded "treasure ships" left South American ports in 1969 and must have been tied up in traffic jams ever since! The awful truth is that enforcement efforts directed toward the suppliers (looters) and manufacturers (forgers) are targeting the wrong end of the business. Until all those well-heeled "benefactors" are rounded up like so many johns in a red-light district, very little is going to change in the art market. Thus, gentle reader, when you stare longingly at the beautiful figurine, the elegant vessel, or the dazzling golden artifact in the dealer's window, stop and think for a moment before you buy it. If it is authentic, you are as much a grave-robber as the huaquero who dug it up, and if it's not, then you are about to be swindled. Wouldn't you really rather buy a nice Andy Warhol?

                Duplicated from the “Resources” section of and reproduced with permission.
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                I keep six honest serving-men (they taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who.


                • #9
                  EUROPEAN & SETTLER CONTACT
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                  From Chicaza to Chickasaw: The European Invasion and the Transformation of the Mississippian World, 1540-1715.
                  Robbie Ethridge

                  From “UM anthropologist’s latest book focuses on transformation of Chickasaw Indians, Thursday-Friday, December 23-24, 2010.” By Edwin Smith, University Communications

                  The evolution of an early Native American tribe following European settlement is the subject of a new critically acclaimed book by a University of Mississippi anthropologist.
                  Robby Ethridge’s “From Chicaza to Chickasaw: The European Invasion and the Transformation of the Mississippian World, 1540-1715” (University of North Carolina Press, 2010) traces the metamorphosis of the Native South from Hernando De Soto’s first contact to the dawn of the 18th century. Although thousands of Indians died or were enslaved and virtually all native polities were radically altered in these years, the collapse of this complex prehistoric Mississippian world did not extinguish them, but rather transformed them, said Etheridge, professor of anthropology.

                  “While the book is very specialized, I’m hoping it will appeal to the general public because of the mostly unknown history of Native Americans that it reveals,” Ethridge said. “For example, few people know that prior to European contact Southern Indian tribes such as the Creeks, Cherokees and Choctaws did not exist. These groups formed as the survivors of the upheaval at contact and began to regroup and restructure their lives.”

                  Ethridge, who has established herself as a leader in the field of indigenous American history, uses a new interpretive frame-work that she calls the “Mississippian shatter zone” to closely follow the story of the Chickasaws throughout this period. Using archaeological and documentary evidence, Ethridge illuminates the Native South in its earliest colonial context and sheds new light on the profound upheaval and cultural transformation experienced by the region’s first peoples.

                  Part of the reason for this upheaval was the commercial trade in Indian slaves that Europeans brought to the New World.

                  “Just as African groups in later years began to conquer one another to provide slaves to the European slave trade, Southern Indian Tribes did the same,” Ethridge said. “In efforts to escape being enslaved, native groups fled slave raiders and the survivors often migrated all over the region.”

                  The book received high praises before its Dec. 15 release.

                  “Robbie Ethridge’s latest book is a logical step in a long-range research program aimed at exploring the transition from prehistory to history in the American South,” said Jay Johnson, UM professor of sociology and anthropology. “It is an important book that will become essential reading for anyone trying to understand the early Colonial period, irrespective of whether they are an archaeologist or historian.”

                  Robbie Ethridge’s innovative, imaginative work of scholarship provides the only modern, comprehensive survey of all the Southeastern Indians during the protohistoric period,” wrote University of Alabama professor Gregory Waselkov.

                  Duplicated from the “Resources” section of and reproduced with permission.
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                  I keep six honest serving-men (they taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who.


                  • #10
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                    Across Atlantic Ice: The Origin of America's Clovis Culture
                    Dennis J. Stanford and Bruce A. Bradley

                    Now reprinted in paperback with 336 pages by the University of California Press:


                    Dennis Stanford is Curator of Archaeology and Director of the Paleoindian Program at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History.

                    Bruce Bradley is Senior Lecturer in Archaeology at the University of Exeter in England and Director of its Experimental Archaeology Programme.

                    The book explores the answer to the questions of who were the first people to inhabit North America, how and when they arrived. The detailed evidence is laid out for the hypothesis that the “first Americans” crossed the Atlantic Ocean by boat from Europe and that the technological antecedents of Clovis culture came from the Solutrean culture of France and Spain more than 20,000 years ago.
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                    I keep six honest serving-men (they taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who.