Explore 30,000 of more than 350,000 items in the Gilcrease collection of art, artifacts and archival materials that tell the history of North America.

3/4 Grooved Axes

Axes have a primary purpose of chopping or pounding. The 3/4 groove is used to attach the handle. Handles may be T-shaped and attached by wrapping rawhide around the groove and the T-shaped portion of the handle. Another form of hafting is using pliable wood to wrap around the groove to form a handle, and securing the handle with rawhide wrapping. Groundstone axes are made from a variety of stone materials, including quartzite, basalt, granite, slate, or sandstone. The raw material (e.g., a stone slab or a cobble) is pecked to form the basic shape, ground with a coarse stone block to refine the shape, and sharpened by grinding with a finer stone.