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Pueblo Cultures (1200 BC - present) (General)

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  • Pueblo Cultures (1200 BC - present) (General)

    Ancient/Ancestral Pueblo Culture (Four Corners)
    [edited by painshill]

    The Pecos Classification

    The Pecos classification takes its name from Pecos, New Mexico where, in 1927, archaeologists specialising in southwestern prehistory in gathered together at a conference organised by Alfred V. Kidder. The discussions centred around archaeological discoveries in the Four Corners area of Utah, northeastern Arizona, northern New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado relating to the Ancient Pueblo Peoples, sometimes referred to as the Anasazi. The term is less used these days since it offends modern Puebloans, having been derived from the name used by their traditional enemies, the Navajo.

    At the conference, consensus was reached to divide the cultural development of all known Ancient/Ancestral Pueblo Peoples into eight identified stages. The stages were based on changes in architecture, art, pottery, and cultural remains. Although the originally agreed stages were chronological, specific dates were not assigned to them.
    The original classification has been significantly debated and modified over the years, with dates now being assigned. There’s a summary here:

    http://visitingtheancients.com/FourCornersTimeline.html


    Wiki provides the most recent divisions as:

    Early Basketmaker II Era (1200 BC to AD 50)

    Late Basketmaker II Era (AD 50 to 500)

    Basketmaker III Era (AD 500 to 750)

    Pueblo I Era (AD 750 to 900)

    Pueblo II Era (AD 900 to 1150)

    Pueblo III Era (AD 1150 to 1350)

    Pueblo IV Era (AD 1350 to 1600)

    Pueblo V Era (AD 1600 - present)


    There’s more information here (including onward links to more detailed information on the individual phases):
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pecos_Classification

    Chaco Canyon served as a major urban centre for the ancestral Puebloan culture and in Chaco chronology, the phases are generally named for the predominant ceramic types found. There’s a downloadable pdf file here which compares the Pecos and Chaco classifications:
    http://www.nps.gov/history/museum/ex...aco_chrono.pdf

    The temporal framework for changes seen in the archaeological record of the Chacoan doesn’t fit neatly into the Pecos Classification and there is an expanded framework proposal here:
    http://www.colorado.edu/Conferences/...chronology.htm

    Wiki also has a detailed page on the timeline of Chacoan history here:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timelin...hacoan_history
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